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The reasons and cure of vaginal spotting and bleeding

The reasons and cure of vaginal spotting and bleeding

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It is quite natural to get scared at the sight of blood during pregnancy. However, vaginal bleeding during pregnancy may not necessarily pose any threat to either you or your baby. It is better to know the reasons of this bleeding and consult your doctor.

Monday, September 4th, 2017

Probable reasons for bleeding.

The causes of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy may include miscarriage, an abnormal location of the placenta, ectopic pregnancy, cervical infection or polyp and premature labor. Chronic medical conditions and use of medication may also trigger this symptom.

First trimester bleeding. Up to half of those who bleed may go on to have a miscarriage and about 3% of all pregnancies are ectopic in location which can be life-threatening to the mother.

Some common causes of bleeding in first half of pregnancy can include the following:

  • Implantation bleeding. A very minimal amount of spotting during the early phases of the first trimester can be associated with the normal implantation of the embryo into the uterine wall. This is called ‘Implantation Bleeding’. You need not be worried about this type of bleeding. Usually it is very minimal and it is a normal part of pregnancy.
  • Threatened miscarriage. If you have some bleeding or cramping, there may be a chance of threatened miscarriage. The foetus is definitely still inside the uterus but the outcome of your pregnancy is a bit doubtful. This can happen due to some infection, like urinary tract infection. It can also happen due to dehydration, use of some drugs or medications, some sort of physical trauma, abnormality of the foetus in some way or for no apparent reason at all. Other than these reasons, threatened miscarriages are generally not caused by things you do, such as heavy lifting or having sex or by emotional stress.
  • Complete miscarriage. If you have completely expelled out the foetus and the products of conception, your bleeding and cramping can slow down and the ultrasound scan may show that the uterus is now empty. This means you have lost the pregnancy. The causes of this are the same as those for threatened miscarriage. This is the most common cause for first trimester bleeding.
  • Incomplete miscarriage. If it is found that your cervix is open and you are still passing blood, clots, or tissue, you may have an incomplete miscarriage or a miscarriage is in progress.
  • Underdeveloped embryo. In case of a blighted ovum (also called embryonic failure) your ultrasound shows intrauterine pregnancy. This means that the embryo has failed to develop as it must have in the proper location. This may occur if the foetus has been abnormal in some way.
  • Missed abortion. You may have an intrauterine foetal demise (also known as IUFD, missed abortion, or embryonic demise) if the developing baby dies inside the uterus. This diagnosis is based on ultrasound results and can occur at any time during pregnancy. This may occur for any of the same reasons as it does for threatened miscarriage during the early stages of pregnancy.
  • Rupture of the placenta blood vessels. In this condition, the placenta can either partially or completely cover the opening of your womb. When you bleed because of this, it is called Placenta Previa..
  • Ectopic pregnancy. This is also known as tubal pregnancy. Bleeding from an ectopic pregnancy is the most dangerous cause of first trimester bleeding. An ectopic pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg somehow gets implanted in the outside of the uterus, most often in the fallopian tube. As the fertilized egg grows, it can rupture the fallopian tube and cause life-threatening bleeding. Symptoms are often variable and may include pain, bleeding, or light-headedness. Most ectopic pregnancies cause pain before the tenth week of pregnancy. The foetus does not develop and dies because of the lack of supply of nutrients.
  • Molar pregnancy. If you have a molar pregnancy then your ultrasound results shows that the developing foetus is not actually a baby but is just an abnormal mass of tissue. This is actually a type of cancer, though rare, that occurs as a result of the hormones of pregnancy. In few cases it can invade the uterine wall and spread throughout the body. The cause of this is generally unknown.
  • Bleeding after sexual intercourse. Vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse is quite normal during pregnancy.
  • Bleeding in Second and Third Trimester
  • Placental abruption. This condition occurs due to the premature separation of the placenta from the uterus. The cause for this is unknown. Placental abruption may lead to high blood pressure (140/90 or greater) or trauma (usually a car accident or maternal battering). It can also happen if you use cocaine or tobacco.
  • Placenta Previa: Since the placenta is implanted over the mouth of uterus, i.e. the cervix, as the cervix becomes thin and dilates in preparation for labor, some blood vessel may stretch and rupture leading to bleeding.
  • Uterine rupture. In this scenario, the uterus splits open abnormally, thus expelling the baby either partially or completely into the abdomen. Uterine rupture is rare but very dangerous for both the mother and the baby. This rupture may occur before or during labor or at the time of delivery. Some other reasons for uterine rupture can include more than 4 pregnancies, excessive use of Oxytocin or Pitocin (a medicine that helps strengthen contractions),having the baby’s shoulder caught on the pubic bone during labor and through certain types of forceps deliveries. A previous C-section increases the chances of uterine rupture through the previous scar which is a relatively weak area.
  • Foetal vessel rupture. This is a rare situation where the baby’s blood vessels from the umbilical cord may get attached to the membranes instead of the placenta.
  • Vasa previa. An even rarer situation where the baby’s blood vessels pass over the entrance to the birth canal. This is called vasa previa.
  • Haemophilia. Inherited bleeding problems, such as haemophilia, are very rare.
  • Less common causes of late-pregnancy bleeding include injuries or lesions of the cervix and vagina, including polyps, cancer, and varicose veins. Bleeding may also be caused by reasons unrelated to pregnancy. For example, trauma or tears to the vaginal wall may be the cause of the bleeding. Certain infections may also do the same. In short, don’t get scared. But don’t ignore it either.

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